Crafting A Turabian Style Research Paper – Essential Instructions

The Turabian style of citation is also commonly referred to as the Chicago style of citation and is a highly adaptable format that fits several disciplines. It’s a great way to present source information in a simple and easy-to-find manner that it is often the go-to style for long research papers. Here are essential instructions for crafting a Turabian style research paper:

Basic Assignment Layout

The basic layout of a standard research paper in this style includes a title page, a table of contents, body paragraphs (pages), and a bibliography page. Some disciplines require additional sections, but this will vary and should be cleared up with your professor before you start.

Basic Paragraph Format

Each paragraph should start with a topic sentence that tells the reader exactly what the paragraph will be discussed. The next two sentences should provide evidence from an academic source in support of the overall thesis statement. The next couple of sentences should express your original thoughts and ideas on how the evidence proves your thesis. And finally you should include a final transition sentence leading to the next paragraph.

In-Text Citations

In-text citations apply for any information that is borrowed from another resource. This can mean any data, facts or figures, any ideas or information, or any quotes fewer than three lines or paraphrases. Each citation should include a superscript number immediately after the period. Relevant information for this citation will be included in either the endnotes or footnotes section.

Block Quotations

Use block quotations when the quoted text runs four or more lines. The section should be indented five spaces beyond the left margin and be double spaced. Include a superscript at the end of the block quotation. Start the next unquoted section in the next line, aligned to the left as before.


Footnotes should be placed below the text of the body in which they appear. The first note should always include all of the resource citation information. Each successive note to that same reference can include abbreviated information. Additionally, you may include some explanatory information if it provides more relevant information that would be useful to the reader. It’s generally discouraged to use notes that digress to afar from the information. Keep your explanations short. Endnotes are formatted the same, but are placed at the end of the paper on a separate page before the complete bibliographic section with all reference information.